筋肉をやわらかくする代表的なエクササイズ!ストレッチが効果的な理由とは

速筋と遅筋の割合が違う。

世の中には身体がやわらかい人と硬い人がいます。身体のやわらかさを決定づける要素にはさまざまなものがありますが、そんななかでまず考えられるのが筋繊維における速筋と遅筋の割合の違いです。速筋の繊維がとてもやわらかいの対して、遅筋の繊維は比較的硬めにできています。つまり、筋肉のなかで速筋の割合が多い人は身体がやわらかく、逆に遅筋の割合が多い人は身体が硬い傾向にあるというわけです。実際、速筋の多い選手が有利とされる短距離走では身体のやわらかい人が多く、長距離走の選手のように遅筋が重要な役割を果たすスポーツでは身体の硬い人が多く見られます。ちなみに、なぜ遅筋が硬めにできているのかというと、姿勢を保持するといった身体を安定させる役割が遅筋にはあるからです。筋肉がやわらかくてぐにゃぐにゃの状態とガチっと硬くなっている状態とでは明らかに後者の方が姿勢を維持するのには適しています。故に、一見すると筋肉が硬いのはマイナス要素のように感じますが、部位によっては必ずしもやわらかい方が良いとは限らないのです。

結合組織が身体を硬くする。

しかし、身体の柔軟性を決める要素はこれだけではありません。短距離走の選手にも身体が硬い人はいますし、反対に長距離走の選手でも柔軟性が優れている人もいます。考えられる別の要因としては筋繊維自体の硬さです。筋肉は筋繊維が束状になって構成されているわけですが、これらをつなぎ合わせているのがコラーゲンなどの結合組織です。この結合組織があることで筋繊維がバラバラにならずに済み、結果として強い力を発揮できるのです。ですが、結合組織が増えすぎてしまうと筋肉がガチガチに固まってしまい、柔軟性が損なわれてしまうのです。特に、コラーゲンは筋繊維に傷が付くと分泌されやすく、その性質ゆえに筋トレをした後は身体が硬くなりやすいとされています。例えば、プロスポーツの世界では「筋トレをし過ぎると身体が硬くなってパフォーマンスが落ちる」という考えがまだまだ根強く残っていますが、これはこの特性が原因となっている可能性が高いでしょう。ちなみに、コラーゲンが筋繊維に集まってしまうのは入念にストレッチをすれば防ぐことができます。ですから、筋トレをする時には追い込んだ後にそのまま放っておくのではなく、ストレッチも併用しながら身体が硬くならないように注意する必要があると言えます。

身体はやわらかい方がスポーツに有利?

身体がやわらかいからといって必ずしもパフォーマンスが上がるわけではありません。新体操やフィギュアスケートのように身体の柔軟性がそのままスコアに直結するような競技もありますが、基本的にはそこまで関係ないと考えて問題ないでしょう。例えば、競泳の世界では足首の筋肉がやわらかい方が有利という考えが強いのですが、アテネと北京で金メダルを獲得した北島康介選手は足首がそこまでやわらかくなかったと言われています。むしろ、専属のトレーナーが足首がやわらかくなり過ぎないように気を付けながらマッサージ等のケアを施していたほどです。もちろん、コンディショニングのケアという観点から見ると柔軟性を高めることは大事ですが、そこに固執するくらいなら技術練習の方により多くの時間を割いた方が費用対効果は高いと言えるでしょう。

関連記事

  1. ストレスに負けない身体づくりに!簡単ストレッチのポイント

  2. 腰痛はストレッチで改善できる!ストレッチで腰の痛みが取れる理由とは

  3. 正しいストレッチで効果的に成果を出そう!

  4. バランスよく伸ばすのに最適なエクササイズ!パートナーストレッチのメリッ…

  5. 宅トレとジムトレーニングの3つの違い!それぞれのメリットとは

  6. ストレッチの効果を倍増させる!ストレッチポールを使用するメリットとは

  7. ストレッチの効率は簡単にあげられる!正しいストレッチのやり方とは

  8. 上手なストレッチで一日の疲れを確実リセット睡眠とストレッチ

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