筋肉痛を起こしやすい筋トレと起こしにくい筋トレ

筋肉痛のメカニズムは

筋肉痛の原因は医学的には未だ解明されていないのが実情です。トレーニングにより傷ついた筋線維が修復される時に炎症を起こし、この時生産される物質が関係しているという説が有力です。筋肉はトレーニングなどにより筋線維や結合組織などに微細な傷が付き炎症を起こします。この炎症により発痛物質であるブラジキニンやプロスタグランジン、ヒスタミン、セロトニンなどの刺激物質が出ます。これらの刺激物質が筋膜を刺激して痛みの信号として脳に伝わり筋肉痛として痛みを感じます。

筋肉痛を起こしやすいトレーニングとは

筋トレはある刺激で負荷が高まり筋肉への負担が大幅に増します。その刺激とはブレーキング動作といわれますが、筋肉が伸ばされる時に抵抗を加えることです。この収縮様式の筋トレをエキセントリックトレーニングといいますが、
このトレーニング方法が一番筋肉に負荷をかけすことが出来ます。筋肉の収縮様式は大きく分けて2つに大別できます。一つはアイソメトリック運動といって等尺性の運動です。これは尺、長さが等しい運動ということで、関節の動きはなく筋肉の伸び縮みを目視確認できません。筋力と負荷が拮抗しているのです。二つ目はアイソトニック運動といって等張性の運動です。これは、張力が等しいことになり、バーベルを持ち上げるように筋肉の張力は変わらず筋肉の長さが変化する運動です。アイソメトリック運動は筋肉痛を起こしやすいことで有名ですが、アイソメトリック運動の中でもエキセントリック運動は筋肉に強い負荷を与えることが出来ます。アイソメトリック運動は短縮性のコンセントリック運動と伸張性のエキセントリック運動に分けることが出来ます。例えば、ダンベルで上腕二頭筋のトレーニングをする時、ダンベルを持ち肘関節を曲げ伸ばしすると思います。この際、肘関節を曲げながら、ダンベルを引き寄せるトレーニングを短縮性またはコンセントリックトレーニングといいます。これに対して、肘を伸ばす運動は負荷がかかりながら筋肉が遠心性に伸張されます。この運動をエキセントリックトレーニングといいます。上腕二頭筋により効果的に刺激を与えるには、ダンベルを降ろす運動のみ行えばより強い刺激を筋肉に与えることが出来るわけです。なお、階段を下りる動作や下山の動作などもエキセントリック運動に該当します。逆にコンセントリックトレーニングを中心に行えば筋肉に対する刺激も抑えることが出来、筋肉痛になりにくいと言えます。

筋肉痛の時は運動しても大丈夫なのか

筋肥大を目的にした筋トレによる筋肉痛の時は休養を入れて筋肉を休ませた方がいいです。同じ部位の筋トレは避けて、1日または2日休養を入れます。ただし、部位を変えての筋トレは可能です。例えば、今日は上半身、明日は下半身などです。
ランニングなどの筋肉痛はどうでしょうか。ランニングなどの有酸素トレーニングの場合は筋持久力を向上させることが目的です。この場合は筋線維へのダメージも筋肥大のトレーニングに比べて小さいのが特徴です。ランニングを始めて筋肉の痛みが増さなければトレーニングは継続しても問題ないです。ただし、トレーニング前後の準備体操はいつもよりも丁寧に行って下さい。

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