ストレッチの基本! 安全性を高めて、運動の効率を上げよう

ストレッチは、目的によって使い分けよう

一般にストレッチは大きく5種類に分けることができ、静かにゆっくり身体を伸ばしていく「スタティックスストレッチ」、体を動かしながら行うラジオ体操のような「ダイナミックストレッチ」、反動をつけて行うストレッチのことを「バリスティックストレッチ」、専門的な知識や技術力などが求められるストレッチとして「PNFストレッチ」、スポーツをした後などにセルフケアとして行う「クライオストレッチ」と呼ばれています。

「何のためにストレッチをするのか」という目的によって、ストレッチの種類も変わります。ここでは、筋トレやランニングなどの前後に行うストレッチについてご紹介したいと思います。目的は、本格的な筋肉を使う運動に入る前に、身体や筋肉を温めることです。個人差もありますが、運動前に行うストレッチとしては軽いジョギングに加えて、ダイナミックストレッチがおすすめです。夏は短い時間で、冬は長めの時間を取るようにしてください。10~20分が目安です。道具を使わずに行うストレッチが基本ですが、筋肉を伸ばしにくい場合にはバランスボールやストレッチポールなどを使うこともあります。

また、運動後に行うストレッチとしては、スタテッィクストレッチがおすすめです。使った筋肉を伸ばすことで疲労を残さないようにします。筋トレなどを行わない日であっても、ストレッチをすることで血流がアップして、代謝も高まります。最近ブームになっているものとしては「筋膜リリース」というマッサージのようなストレッチもあります。全身を包み込んでいる筋膜がくっついているとさまざまな不調が起きることから、それを防ぐ目的で行われます。多くのアスリートが取り入れているストレッチ法のひとつですが、初心者の方でも簡単に行うことができます。テニスボールやゴルフボールなどを使って、足裏や背中の裏など手の届きにくい部分に刺激を与える方法もあります。

 基本のストレッチのポイント

筋トレやランニングなど運動をする前に行うストレッチは、身体を温めることでケガの予防や、関節の可動域を広げることにもつながります。かつてはストレッチをしてから筋トレを行うことで、効率よく筋肉を付けられるとされていましたが、最近の研究によれば1カ所につき30秒以上のストレッチは逆効果にもなると言われています。筋トレ前のストレッチは1カ所につき20秒程度に留めるようにしましょう。また、運動後のストレッチは、伸ばしている筋肉に意識を集中させて、自然な呼吸をしながら筋肉を伸ばすようにしましょう。筋肉を伸ばし始めたところで、息をゆっくり長く吐くようにすると効果的です。リラックス効果もあるので不眠に悩んでいる方にもおすすめです。また身体が温まるので、冷え性で悩んでいる方はぜひ取り入れるようにしてくださいね。ストレッチで意識する筋肉は、基本的には筋トレで意識する筋肉と同じです。大胸筋や背中・肩・首・腕・腹などの上半身の筋肉と、股関節・ハムストリングス・大腿四頭筋・お尻・ふくらばぎ・足などの下半身の筋肉があります。いずれのストレッチも、伸ばしている筋肉に意識を傾けて、伸ばし始めるときには息をゆっくり吐くようにしてください。

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