ストレッチの基本を学ぼう!ストレッチの種類とやり方

運動をしている人の多くはストレッチに種類があることを知らず、正しいやり方をあまり知らずにストレッチをしている人が多くいます。ストレッチは目的に応じた適切なものを選ばなければ、あまり意味のないものになってしまいます。また、間違ったやり方をすると、怪我の原因やパフォーマンスの低下などに影響を与えます。運動前後や柔軟性の向上などの、目的に合ったストレッチを選べるように参考にしてください。

ストレッチの種類

・静的ストレッチ
ゆっくりとした動きで筋肉を伸ばすストレッチで柔軟性の向上に効果的です。運動後のストレッチに適しており、運動前の静的ストレッチはパフォーマンスにプラスの影響を与えないとされています。
・動的ストレッチ
動作の中で行い動きのあるストレッチとなっていますが、反動を使いながら行うバリスティックストレッチと混同しないように気を付けてください。運動前のストレッチに適しています。
・バリスティックストレッチ
反動を使って跳ねるように行うストレッチです。筋肉が過度に伸びることを防止する「伸張反射」の向上に効果がありますが、柔軟性の向上に不適切で怪我の危険性が高いストレッチです。
・固有受容性神経筋促進法(PNF)
筋肉の緊張を高めたり筋肉を活動させたりする事で、筋肉を弛緩させるストレッチで、「ホールド‐リラックス法」と呼ばれる方法が一般的な方法です。

ストレッチのやり方

・静的ストレッチ
一般的に知られるストレッチで、10~30秒程度の時間をかけてゆっくりと筋肉を伸ばします。ストレッチをしている部位が伸びているところで静止することが重要で、腕を交差させる肩のストレッチや、つま先を後ろに持つ太もものストレッチなどが挙げられます。
・動的ストレッチ
つま先歩きやかかと歩き、歩きながら股関節を内回しや外回し、身体を前に倒しつま先を触りながら歩くなどで、動きの中で筋肉を伸ばします。
・バリスティックストレッチ
反動を使ったバリスティックストレッチの良い例は、アキレス腱を伸ばす動きを勢いよく弾みながら行う動作が挙げられます。この他にも静的及び動的ストレッチは勢いを付けるとバリスティックストレッチになってしまいます。
・固有受容器神経筋促進方(PNF)
ホールド‐リラックス法はパートナーと行います。始めに10秒程度通常の静的ストレッチを行い、6秒程度パートナーとお互いに力を入れて押し合います。その後、1~2秒程度の休憩を入れて、最後に押してもらいながらストレッチを行います。柔軟性の向上に有効なストレッチですが、パートナーがPNFを熟知している必要があります。

正しいストレッチで効果を高めよう

ストレッチの効果を高めるには運動前は動的ストレッチ、運動後は静的ストレッチをします。これは運動で起こる怪我を防ぐために重要で、パフォーマンスを上げる効果もあります。運動前にも静的ストレッチを行いがちですが、運動のパフォーマンス低下を招くので適したストレッチではありません。また、動的ストレッチとバリスティックストレッチを混同せずに行うことも重要で、バリスティックストレッチは怪我のリスクの高いストレッチとなっています。運動を効率的にするためにも、目的に合ったストレッチを選んでストレッチの効果を高めてみてください。

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