脂肪が筋トレに役立つ?体脂肪と筋トレの意外な関係について

筋トレにおける脂肪の役割

ダイエットや筋肉質な体型を目指して筋トレに励んでいる方にとって、体脂肪は敵と思われがちです。実際に理想体型を目指すには脂肪を減らすことが欠かせませんが、体脂肪率には適切な値があり、その値を超えたり下回り過ぎたりすると筋トレの伸びが鈍ることがあります。

脂肪は食事で摂取された余分なエネルギーが蓄積されたものですが、体を動かす際の力となるため、脂肪がないと筋肉を始めとする他の組織が分解して使われることになります。この分解は「異化」と呼ばれ、筋トレでは体脂肪を減らして適正値に保ちつつ、異化を出来る限り防ぐことが目標になります。

筋トレではまず摂取されたエネルギーの一つである「グリコーゲン」とエネルギーとして使い、グリコーゲンが無くなってくると脂肪を分解してエネルギーに変えます。しかし、この脂肪がエネルギー源となるには不十分だと筋肉を分解し始めます。そのため、脂肪は適度に蓄えておく必要があるというわけです。

テストステロンと体脂肪率

筋トレの成果を高めるテストステロンというホルモンは、体脂肪率と大きく関連しています。脂肪が多すぎる状態、つまり肥満体型だとテストステロンの分泌量が減る傾向にあり、逆に体脂肪率が低すぎても十分な量が分泌されません。

テストステロンと脂肪はこのように関わっているため、筋トレをする場合は太り過ぎず痩せすぎずという体型が理想的です。具体的な体脂肪率は人によって異なるものの、高くても15%、低くても10%程度で維持することを目指しましょう。

良好な体脂肪率を保つには、筋トレに加えて有酸素運動を加えることが効果的ですが、筋肉をつけたい場合は疲れすぎて筋トレができなくならないように、筋トレの後にウォーキングなどを行いましょう。

体脂肪率10%未満のエネルギー消費について

脂肪が筋トレにはある程度必要ということが分かってくると、「腹筋が割れた細マッチョはダメなの?」という疑問が湧いてくるかもしれません。もちろん、各々が目指す体型は異なるため、体脂肪率が少ない細マッチョが悪いというわけではありませんが、エネルギー摂取に工夫が必要です。

体脂肪率が10%を切ってくると、体の代謝が非常に上がっているためエネルギーがすぐ使われてしまいます。それにも関わらず脂肪が少ないため、足りないエネルギーは筋肉を異化させて補給することになります。

細マッチョの体型を目指す方、維持したい方は食事やサプリメントでエネルギーをしっかりと補って筋肉の異化を抑制することが欠かせません。

細マッチョに必要なカロリー

体脂肪率が10%未満になってくると腹筋が割れて見えるようになってきますが、まだ15%といった腹筋が割れない段階で細マッチョを目指す方は、1800~2000カロリーのエネルギー摂取をしながら筋トレに取り組みましょう。

特に運動をしなくても消費されるカロリーを示した基礎代謝量は、男性の場合1500カロリー前後なので、この量のエネルギーは必ず摂るようにします。

日常では歩行などでエネルギーを使いますし、筋トレも当然同じことが言えます。よって、既に腹筋が割れているほど体脂肪率が低く、細マッチョを維持したい方は2000~2500カロリー以上を摂取しながら筋トレに励むことが大切です。

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