筋トレ初心者の方は必見!鍛えたい筋肉を意識すれば効果も倍増

はじめに、どの部分を鍛えたいですか?

「筋トレ」と聞くと、初心者の方のなかには腕立て伏せやスクワット、ダンベルを使ったトレーニングを思い浮かべる方も多いと思います。もちろん間違いではありませんが、筋トレを始める前にまず、どの部分を鍛えたいのかをイメージすることが大切です。全身には400もの筋肉があり様々な名称がありますが、主な筋肉として大きく分類すると「胸」「腹」「背筋」「肩」「上腕二頭」「前腕」「足」「尻」があります。「上腕二頭」と言うとイメージが湧かない方もあるかもしれませんが、通称「力こぶ」とも呼ばれ、人間の上肢の筋肉のことでアメリカの漫画の「ポパイ」などにもよく登場します。

例えば、ダイエットの目的で筋トレを始めようとするなら、大きな筋肉から鍛えることがポイントです。そうすることで効率よく基礎代謝が上がり痩せやすくなるからです。では、大きな筋肉とはどの筋肉でしょうか。答えは「足(太もも)」の筋肉です。胸にも大きな筋肉がありますが、太ももや胸の筋肉を鍛えると、同時に小さな筋肉も鍛えられることになります。一般に「小さな筋肉は疲れやすい」と言われており、先に大きな筋肉を鍛えてから小さな筋肉を鍛えることで継続的に大小の筋肉を鍛えることができます。逆に、小さな筋肉から鍛えてしまうと大きな筋肉を鍛える前に疲れてしまい、継続してトレーニングすることができません。

実は筋トレを始める方の多くは鍛える筋肉の順番をよく考えずに取り組んでいますが、目的によってトレーニングメニューを考えることは効果を高める上でとても大切です。

 筋トレをスタート!トーレニングの種類は?

では次に、トレーニングの種類についてお話します。スポーツセンターやジムに行くと、筋トレ専用のトレーニングマシーンが設置されていますが、どんなトレーニングがあるのか予め知っておきたいですいね。例えば、胸や太ももの筋肉を鍛えたい場合には「ダンベル筋トレ」「バーベル筋トレ」「チューブトレーニング」「自重トレーニング」があります。先の3つは道具を使って行うもので、「自重トレーニング」というのは、器具を使わずに文字の通り自分の身体の重さを使って行うトレーニングです。自重トレーニングの代表的なものとしては、腕立て伏せ、スクワット、クランチ(腹筋)があります。腕立て伏せとスクワットはご存知の方も多いと思いますが、クランチというのは横になり頭を上げて腹筋を丸めるトレーニングです。腹筋が出来ない方でも、クランチはできることが多く、初心者の方でも取り組みやすいメニューです。

器具を使ったトレーニングは「ウエイトトレーニング」と呼ばれることもあります。その名前の通り、ウエイト(重り)を使って行うもので、どちらかと言えば、筋肉がある程度付いている方向けのメニューと言えます。自重トレーニングは、基本的には自宅でも手軽にできて、器具を使わないためケガをしにくく初心者向けと言えます。ただ自分の体重以上の負荷をかけることができないので、筋トレ中級者やある程度筋肉が付いてきたら、鍛えたい場所やその状態によって色々な負荷をかけられるウエイトトレーニングに切り替えるのも良いでしょう。

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