筋トレの効果的に進める7つの原則

筋トレには7つの原則があり、この原則に沿って筋トレをすることが効果的な筋トレとなっています。これらの原則はどれも筋トレに限らず、ランニングなどの有酸素運動やスポーツの練習にも共通することで、トレーニングの原則と呼ばれています。今回は筋トレで紹介しますが、実践する時にはトレーニングを筋トレに限らず、広い意味で捉え日頃の活動に活かしてください。

筋トレを効果的に進める7つの原則

1.過負荷の原則
オーバーロードの原則とも呼ばれ、「ある器官の機能をより発達させるには、日常的な水準以上にその機能を使う必要がある」というトレーニング理論で、筋トレによる筋力向上を目指すのであれば、より一定以上の負荷を身体に与えなければいけません。簡単に言うと、〔前回の筋トレよりも少しでも重い重量を使う〕や〔前回の筋トレよりも1回でも多く行う〕など、負荷を多くしていかなければいけません。
2.漸進性の原則
筋トレの内容を簡単なものから難しいもの、負荷の低いものから高いもの、などの少しずつレベルアップをしていくという原則です。例を出すと、〔腕立て伏せからベンチプレス〕などのように、自重トレーニングからウエイトトレーニングに負荷とテクニックが上がる筋トレです。
3.反復性の原則
筋トレは定期的に反復することで始めて意味を持つもので、1回やっただけでは効果は無く、短期間に集中的に鍛えても効果は長続きしなくす意味のないものとなってしまいます。
4.意識性の原則
自覚性の原則とも呼ばれ、筋トレをする際はその筋トレが自分にどのような変化をもたらし、どのような効果が期待できるのかを理解しなければ、効率的な筋トレにならないと言う原則です。鍛えている筋肉や動かしている関節の動きを意識することが筋トレの効果を出すには必要になります。
5.個別性の原則
年齢、性別、健康、体力などの個人で違う能力や状態に合わせた筋トレを行わなければいけないという原則です。簡単に言うと、ムキムキのボディービルダーと細身の女性では、同じ筋トレをすることが出来ないのは当たり前のことで、その差は性差や体重に限ったことではなく、個別に合った負荷や種目を考えて筋トレをしなければいけません。
6.全面性の原則
全身の筋トレをバランス良くしなければいけないという原則で、上半身だけや下半身だけの筋トレ、一部分だけを鍛えるといったことは避けなければいけません。また、筋肉だけに限ったことではなく、筋力、持久力、柔軟性などの総合的な体力を鍛える必要があります。
7.特異性の原則
SAIDの原則とも呼ばれ、目的に適した筋トレを選ばなければいけないという原則です。例を出すと、ジャンプ力を付けたいのに腕の筋トレをしてもジャンプ力は向上しません。ジャンプ力を付けたいのなら、クリーンや脚の筋トレ、瞬発力トレーニングなどが適しています。また筋トレの種類の選び方も影響を与え、手を前に合わせる胸の筋トレなどの動きが少ない筋トレは、スポーツをする人や運動能力を向上させたい人には向かない筋トレ方法となっています。そのような人には、動きのある腕立て伏せやベンチプレスなどが適しています。
※SAIDとは、Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demandsの頭文字を取った言葉で、「生体は課された条件に応じた適応をする」という意味になります。

筋トレは原則を守って鍛えよう

トレーニングの原則はどれも筋トレをする上で、基本的なこととなっていて原則に沿って鍛えることはとても重要になります。7つの原則をまとめて言うと、「自分の体力や目的に合った筋トレを選び、意識しながら全身を鍛え定期的に負荷を上げながら続ける」ということになります。原則に沿った筋トレはとても効果的なので、トレーニングの原則を心掛けて鍛えてみてください。

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